10 Things You Should Know about Breastfeeding

While preparing for the arrival of my 2nd newborn next month, I am taking time off to write this very long entry, hoping to encourage more moms to join me in this amazing breastfeeding journey too! I hope that whatever i write below can help inspire you to attempt and persevere to breastfeed for as long as you can, cos breastfeeding is a gift that a mom can give to her child only once in his lifetime, once the time had passed, you cannot give this gift again.

Breastfeeding

Before i became a mom, I had never thought much about breastfeeding at all, or even showed any interests to find out more from breastfeeding colleagues. When i hear about breastfeeding my reaction will be “Oh?! Ok…” Only when I was mid-way pregnant with my #1, then I began to question myself if I want or need to breastfeed my baby? But first, if I know nuts about breastfeeding, how am i going to make that decision of to breastfeed or not?

Being a very serious person that always seek to find out the truth myself, instead of depending on hearing what everyone (breastfeeding moms, non-breastfeeding moms, singles, married but no children yet, and even men had tried telling me about breastfeeding when I haven’t gave it a thought at all) had to say, I actually went to the library to borrow many books on this topic to learn what breastfeeding is all about, what are the benefits, how it works, the techniques, tricks, tips, how to troubleshoot, etc. So i studied and i succeeded in exclusive breastfeeding for 18 months despite negative comments, discouragements or challenges from around me! I was able to do so because i already knew what are bullshits that i do not need to heed or entertain, as well as i found two very positive and supportive mommy friends whom i approached for help and advices!

Recalling back, I feel it’s amazing how my body is able to support and provide food for the first 18 months of my son’s life! All his milk intake came from me and i was very happy because my son is my lipo-suction machine as well as he is gentle to our wallet!! I didn’t plan when to stop breastfeeding, some how, one day after midnight, when KD turned 17 months exactly, he decided to stop latching just like that. 🙂 I think I am a lucky one in this sense, i immediately took the cue and start weaning him by extending the time to express my breast milk. The frozen supply of expressed breast milk in the freezer lasts for another month before it is totally depleted and then we started our purchasing of milk powder journey.. ($_$””) [Psst!! And can you imagine? For the next 9 months that followed…. i still have breast milk in my breasts even though i didn’t latch on or express anymore? that’s like WOAH! No one told me that!!]

13320_409055191912_5973425_n

Check out KD’s michelin hands and thunder thighs!

28096_110063505705420_6828476_n

Breastfed babies plump up very easily from birth, by the 3rd month I saw a cute chubby baby in my KD!

I shall not go into details about how breastfeeding works, what you should do etc.. You will be able to easily find theses out on your own if you are really keen about breastfeeding. What I want to share is the 10 things about breastfeeding that I have experienced & learnt and feel it will be encouraging for you to know:

1. CONVENIENCE
I feel the biggest advantage about breastfeeding is convenience – there is no need to wash & sterilize bottles, no need to bring any milk accessories out, no need to wake in middle of night to go out to mix a bottle of milk, you don’t even have to switch on the lights to find your breasts! Thus i always advocate please latch on all the way, unless necessary. One big beauty about breastfeeding is it’s available anytime, anywhere! I don’t feed my baby water cos breast milk is water and i don’t force my baby to drink from a milk bottle too. C’mon! He is so new to this world! Let him enjoys what he loves! *grins* And you know what is the other greatest convenience? You can bring your baby travelling without fear of:
i) him crying on the plane cos of ear pains,
ii) him drinking any contaminated water or food
iii) packing hot water, ensuring enough milk powder,
iv) how to sterilise while outside or overseas etc etc etc

2. NIPPLES SAVER
The BEST nipple cream is actually your own breast milk, try it to believe it! After every feed, just press on your areola to express a little milk and smear it over the nipple. Wait a while for it to dry before covering up. And the BEST way to heal crack nipples is actually your baby’s saliva! Just endure the pain and keeps on latching, the pain will surely go away in a day on its own as compared to not latching and pumping out the milk with nipple cream.. It’s the same as wearing new shoes, you know? Cracked nipples are result from improper latching so your nipples need to be accustomed to your baby and it won’t be pain again. Endure and I swear it heals in a day!

3. NOT ENOUGH MILK MEH?
I am always very puzzled when i heard friends turned new moms tell me they stopped breastfeeding like as early as less one month after delivery, their reason is always not enough supply and when i observed or probed a little, i realised that they do not feed frequently or when baby demands for milk, they continued wearing underwired bras, they want to nap in day and sleep through the night and etc. You must know that your baby controls the milk supply. In the beginning, he may cries often and need to latch on VERY often, it’s very normal.. he is helping you to build up the supply for his needs. Many oldies love to criticise that it’s because you do not have enough milk and thus the baby is always hungry.. simply just latch on, and soon, your supply will meet your baby’s demand and a schedule will be form. And please remember, your baby is growing and will have growth spurts. Thus expect that during his growth spurts you will have to latch on frequently again as he is helping you to build up the supply again to meet his needs. Should you feel your milk supply has dropped, check your breasts for blocked milk ducts. There are also ways to increase milk supply such as having enough liquids intake, ensure ample rest and relaxation, as well as taking nursing tea & supplements. Lastly, DON’T BE obsess with how much milk you can pump out and how much milk your baby is taking at every feed! The logic is the same as you will never pee or poo the same amount of waste every time cos it’s depending on your intake and as for the baby’s feeding, they are like adults, we eat more when we are more active and warm and lesser on days where it’s cool and cosy right? They have appetites too.

4. FEED REGULARLY LEH
I do not really follow a time table to feed my son. I take the cue from him to feed him. However, i make it a point to not let the time in between feeds be longer than 3 hours so if he was still sleeping, i will carry him up, wake him and feed him. If he is too sleepy, you can undress him and stroke his jawline gently to wake him. There are actually many different theories out there on breastfeeding schedule and techniques, there is no wrong ones, just simply choose one method that fits you best. In gists, all theories are in the same direction –> Feed regularly to promote and maintain milk supply. And remember, your breast can never be emptied of milk… as you feed, it’s producing milk too.. So in the time span of feeding your baby, don’t be amazed when you have let down a couple of times.. (Ehem, this is something only women get to enjoy just like the other thing you know?…) It’s good for your baby’s growth and it’s good for the mommy cos the more you feed, the faster you slim down! ;p

5. ONLY YOU~
breastfeeding

Just like it’s you whom carried your baby for 9 months, it wasn’t your hubby, your mom or your mother-in-law.. Breastfeeding to me is the same. It’s a very special way of bonding that can only happen between the mom and child, that NO ONE else can replace. Simply just let others bond with the baby in other ways. There should be no need to express your milk out and allow others to feed the baby instead if you are breastfeeding! Won’t that make things more tedious for every one? You pumping, your baby wailing and some one has to wash and sterilise everything later! If you are going back to work, u can start pumping only the week before and talk to your baby about you going back to work, trust me, he knows. Feed the baby only one or two feeds a day via bottle during the hours that you will be away at work. Don’t need to feel frustrated if the baby doesn’t want the bottle. They are smart, when you are not around, somehow they will know and give in to bottles when they are hungry. I still latched when I am back home with baby or on weekends cos I am a lazy fuss free mom. It’s convenience and bonding at the same time that I love!

6. MOST PRECIOUS AND BEST GIFT
Do you know that the colostrum that our breasts produced during the 1st 3 days of the baby’s life is very precious and good for the baby? Even if you do not breastfeed for long, do it at least the first few days to pass this gift to your child. Once it’s over, you can’t give to him again.
Extracted from La Leche League:

” Your breasts produce colostrum beginning during pregnancy and continuing through the early days of breastfeeding. This special milk is yellow to orange in color and thick and sticky. It is low in fat, and high in carbohydrates, protein, and antibodies to help keep your baby healthy. Colostrum is extremely easy to digest, and is therefore the perfect first food for your baby. It is low in volume (measurable in teaspoons rather than ounces), but high in concentrated nutrition for the newborn. Colostrum has a laxative effect on the baby, helping him pass his early stools, which aids in the excretion of excess bilirubin and helps prevent jaundice. In those first few days it is extremely important to breastfeed your newborn at least 8-12 times each 24 hours, and more often is even better. This allows your baby to get all the benefits of the colostrum and also stimulates production of a plentiful supply of mature milk. Your colostrum provides not only perfect nutrition tailored to the needs of your newborn, but also large amounts of living cells which will defend your baby against many harmful agents. The concentration of immune factors is much higher in colostrum than in mature milk. Colostrum actually works as a natural and 100% safe vaccine. It contains large quantities of an antibody called secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) which is a new substance to the newborn. Before your baby was born, he received the benefit of another antibody, called IgG, through your placenta. IgG worked through the baby’s circulatory system, but IgA protects the baby in the places most likely to come under attack from germs, namely the mucous membranes in the throat, lungs, and intestines. Colostrum has an especially important role to play in the baby’s gastrointestinal tract. A newborn’s intestines are very permeable. Colostrum seals the holes by “painting” the gastrointestinal tract with a barrier which mostly prevents foreign substances from penetrating and possibly sensitizing a baby to foods the mother has eaten. Colostrum also contains high concentrations of leukocytes, protective white cells which can destroy disease-causing bacteria and viruses. The colostrum gradually changes to mature milk during the first two weeks after birth. During this transition, the concentrations of the antibodies in your milk decrease, but your milk volume greatly increases. The disease-fighting properties of human milk do not disappear with the colostrum. In fact, as long as your baby receives your milk, he will receive immunological protection against many different viruses and bacteria.”

7. BEST SUPPLEMENT & IMMUNITY BUILDER
simplythebest-260m684

Do you know that there are very little supplement that you can give to your child below one year old and yet they are so exposed and vulnerable to all the germs and virus in this world? The special thing about breastfeeding is that we can breast feed all the time, even when we are sick with flu or cold! You should be wearing a mask when you breastfeed your baby when you are sick, and feed before you take your medication. Our breast milk will contain the antibodies for the illness that our body is fighting against and is very good for the baby! Always check with your doctor if you can continue breastfeeding, you can breastfeed unless advise otherwise by the doctor. 🙂

8. YES BABY??
Breastfeeding time is actually a very good time for the mom to bond with the baby. He does not look any where but you (of cos other than that he might be so cosy that he falls asleep!) So, try not to multi task while you are latching on the baby, (though it’s always tempting to check on facebook, reply messages or upload the baby’s latest photos…) You can look at him, admire and remember his features, trying to freeze those touching moments into your memory. Some times i sang to my baby or i just talked to him. He will be very soothed by his mom’s voice. KD was breastfeeded by me for 18 months and he is already 40 months old now. Yet he still remembers that i breastfeed him!! Once in a while, he will come to me and tell me he wants to drink MY milk but i will apologize and reply him no more stock! Haha!

9. YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT
Breastfeeding also make us more aware & conscious of the food that we eat. It’s important that we learn to know our food because certain foods can:
* increase or decreases your milk supply
* provide nutrients to your baby like eating salmon for DHA etc
* cause allergies to your baby
* cause colic & wind and etc
Always keep a mental note on what you have eaten and observe your baby’s output. And you can be adventurous when your baby gets older!

10. YOU HAVE GOT THE POWER!!
make milk

Lastly, to end off, i hope that you know that you have this special gift / ability / power to be your own baby’s only source of food for at least the first 6 months of his life. No one can or should stop you unless you yourself want to.

BREASTFEEDING TIP #1: Especially for new moms-to-be, I will strongly recommend you to go to the library to borrow at least a book on breastfeeding, to find out what it’s all about on your own. After all, breastfeeding does not work out for lazy and half hearted moms… And though women nowadays are are educated but it is not something that comes natural to every women. Breastfeeding is actually science on its own too. 🙂

BREASTFEEDING TIP #2: After completing the readings, make your own notes and go to YouTube for tutorial on how to latch on baby, how to unlatch etc.. Again, it’s not something that all women or babies will know how, some women actually dunno their own bodies well enough, and it’s something where you can’t practise or have hands on tutorials before hand… You just have to learn the techniques and trial and error when you have your newborn in your arms. Lastly, there are many different issues/situations such as some women may have inverted nipples or sleepy baby etc.. ALL THESES, can be troubleshooted and you can breastfeed. There is actually no such thing as not enough milk or cannot breastfeed unless your doctor specifically tells you you have a medial condition that you can’t breastfeed your baby.

Do it myself book

Sharing a cloth book that I LOVE!!!

I had purchased it for KD when he was barely One Year Old, because I simply couldn’t resist it that time! I can’t remember the actual price and place that i purchased from, however it wasn’t too expensive!

I been taking it out on and off to read to KD when he was younger (from 1.5 years to 2.5 years), and activities i did with him with this book were picture story telling using him as the character and what he is doing every morning, followed by me demonstrating how to do each tasks.. But i had kept it and forgotten about it until recently KD took it out again on his own..

To my astonishment, he was picture story telling to me about the book and demonstrating how to perform the tasks on his own! Who says children whom do not pay attention doesn’t pick up anything? He was learning all along just that he did not display it!
image

image

Buttoning up – takes a lot off finger skills!

image

Putting on a belt

image

Connecting and pulling up the zipper

image

Tying Shoe Lace – To be honest, this is not something KD can do yet. But he has an idea that the lace go thru holes.. 🙂

image

Another type of Button

image

Buckle up!

Kyle’s 2nd Show & Tell

image

Hee, this was Kyle’s 2nd Show and Tell in his school in the same week. We were told  to bring two photographs to school for him to tell his classmates about his family and an activity that we were doing together.

And so, I went to developed the two two photographs and passed to his teachers without doing any preparation with him at all. 🙂

image

image

His teacher wrote me a note on how Kyle did and I must say i am quite proud of Kyle’s for being able to speak up and express himself.

image

In fact, he must be very proud of his family too for after he bring home the above photographs from school, he treasured them so much that he wouldn’t let me keep them.

He keeps them into his backpack and brings them everywhere!

Parent child homework: Kyle’s first show and tell

image

Last week, Kyle came home with this parent & child’s work folder and I am supposed to guide Kyle on what he can do and actually there is really many things he can do himself! The activities that he will be most interested to show off will probably be how to play Temple Run II on the iPad or how to dance and sing to various languages of Gungnam Style. Bleah.. :p

After many careful conversations and consideration, I took out his paint brushes and ask him to select a picture of his favorite fruit (which at this point of his life happened to be Strawberries, was banana, papaya and apples previously).

image

So, I asked him to select the colours and paint the picture himself. 🙂

image

On Wednesday, when i picked him up from his school, his teacher told me that he was able to speak in front of his classmates though he was really soft.

Anyway, I am a proud mama cos it’s Kyle’s first show and tell and i think it’s fantastic job he did!

On being a SAHM

$AHM Linky Badge photo NetWorthSAHMbadge_zpsf095377d.jpg

Joining the SAHM Net Worth Blog Train, I will also like to share a bit more on being a SAHM, albeit being only a SAHM for not too long as I only started being a full time SAHM on 1 Nov 2012 when my elder child turned exactly 36 months old and I was 3 months preggie with my second child.

In the beginning, a little less than a month into my SAHM days, i already very quickly felt super insecure and wrote about Doubting My SAHM Decision.. After all, the 4 months maternity leave that I am forgo-ing is already worth thousands in the tens.. And I no longer can afford luxuries like travels, shopping, eating out or even changing my car etc. I didn’t quit to become a Tai Tai, my husband’s salary is not high. I quit to be a wife to help my hubby whom found a job he likes but yet needs to travel rather frequently, and to be a mom to look after our children and to nurture them myself.

I guess most of my ex-colleagues will never believe that I will turned a SAHM because I was known to be a outspoken, confident, focused and conscientious sales person doing solution selling in the IT field. My appraisals are always promising with scores belonging in the top 10% contributors of the whole company, not just based on the sales figures I brought in but also because of the contributions I made. My increments year on year also belonged to the higher percentage unlike other colleagues. I was promised career advancements which was shelved when I was pregnant with my elder child at the peak of my career.. Then I did pondered WHY? Cos though I was pregnant, my performance didn’t dropped but in fact I over achieved! I never slowed down and that resulted in me being hospitalized for premature labour pains when KD was 32 weeks in my womb. That was the first wake up call for me. A slap in my face.

The second wake up call was after the maternity leave and when I went back to work. I had a rude shock from fellow colleagues as well as from the superiors. Somehow all the things people said or do, hinted to me that since I have become a mom at age 27, I am no longer competitive, no longer valued. New and inexperienced colleagues were actually challenging me (considered experienced and with proven track record lah) openly!! i absolutely HATE that feeling and times! I remembered when the sex for bribery cases emerged, I was joking with hubby that who knows, if I continues in the same industry and is 40+, married with children and with a lot liabilities unpaid, I may be forced to do the same too cos of the demanding requirements set up typical IT companies??? Not that i agree with what was happening, but i empathise with the women..

Outcast...

Gists is… The working society on the whole does discriminate against working moms. I have heard and seen many jobs for example air stewardess, sales lines or even teachers facing the same problems! Teachers as civil servants in the government sectors helping Singapore to groom future leaders for goodness sake! That really surprised and shocked me! I heard from my married female teachers friends that they faced similar kind of penalisation in terms of work grading, promotions, increment on top of superiors’ and colleagues changed attitudes, after they have given birth and returned to work. Not forgetting, when a mom takes urgent child care leaves, the questions asked are “Why is your child so weak?”, “There is something wrong with your child you know? He shouldn’t be falling sick so often?” and etc.. The very people whom asked me theses questions were my superiors and parents themselves.. secretly i do cursed them!!

The working society also cannot tolerate breastfeeding moms too! Though the MOH and worldwide healthcare strongly recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, our government didn’t encourage companies to set up a breastfeeding room. Very few government offices have breastfeeding rooms too. Why?? Because our country is so focused on GDP and profits.. Going to pump milk in between office hours is intolerable BUT smoking and crapping during office hours is ok… What logic is that?!?

03

The government talks repeatedly about attracting moms back to work. I wonder if they ever ponder over why we left work in the first place?

I remembered when KD was in the infant care and the school fees was SGD1500 before subsidy, then the government announced that they raised the subsidy to SGD600, the infant care also raised their school fees to SGD1650!! All because the landlord immediately raised the rental too!

chinese-babies_52 LaiMing

The government encourages us to have more babies as well as encourages moms to continue working. Did they try to work out the sums? Housing and other expenses aside, for example now i have two and i placed them in childcares when I returned to work, my elder school fees will be SGD680 and youngest in infantcare will be SGD980 after subsidies, that is the price for a mid range childcare near rural work places… If i have three and assuming the two elder ones in childcare and youngest in infantcare, it will then be SGD680 + SGD680 + SGD980 a month!! What about if i want to have 4 kids?! Why can’t the same amount of subsidy be open towards letting us to give to a caregiver such as the children’s grandparents or nanny instead? Why can it only be claimed by the childcare centres themselves?

I remembered watching “Conversations with the Prime Minister” and questions were raised about the costs of childcare as well as difficulties in finding caregivers. Mr Lee asked why can’t the mothers consider taking a few years off work to look after and nurture the children herself? He mentioned that one can’t be chasing the best of both worlds – $$ and children and there is a limitation on how far a government can help. Well, it did stuck a chord in me and that’s exactly what we are doing now. Make do with lesser $ and bond with our children, because it’s our responsibilities to raise up our children well, not the government.

On what type of help that I as a SAHM would wish to see, I hope that for the creation and availability of more home based jobs like example during my mother’s time, she is able to work at home to earn a little income to supplement while looking after us! I remembered she did clothes packaging, sewing or some simple products packaging at home.. but alas, theses industry are no long available in Singapore and many women now have lost the ability to know how to sew, tailor or even cook! Now, it’s really not easy for me to find any jobs to work at home cos i do not know accounting, i can’t design too.. It will be good if the Government can spot some opportunities and provide trainings to us SAHMs that we can work freelance, part time or from home to supplement the family’s income as well as to help the countries’ economy… They can consider SAHMs instead of foreign workers.. maybe SAHMs can be trained to teach in the preschools in Singapore for 2 to 4 hours a day instead of employing foreigners? Many of the SAHM have high qualifications, the government should know.

I also hope to see the Preschool Education in Singapore becomes free for citizens just like primary and secondary schools, so all schools will become standardised and costs balanced. With that, it’s easier to train the manpower as well as set up new school to meet the shortage.

Lastly, every child born to a working mom can have a cash subsidy of SGD600 every month pay out to the family directly instead of to the childcare centre. The mom can decide and choose to either use it to help supplement a domestic helper, or give to the grandparents or nanny, to help look after her child. I think this way, a mom will be happy to continue working and giving birth to as many as 4 children and the grandma will be happy to quit her job to help look after 4 grandchildren with SGD2400 and sending the elder ones to preschool and fetching them for us! Why will we made our parents quit their current job if they can earn more $$ than what we can afford to give to them to look after our children?

Hubby and I are one of the families hoping to have four children. But we aren’t sure how to achieve it with both of us working (how are we going to pay the childcare costs), or with only one of us working because the costs of living is simply too high. Imagine, how a mom brings 4 children out on the public transport system? The fares are high too. And how to buy a bigger car now? Will the government consider giving out free child seats to every new borns too? Since it’s mandatory for children below the height of 1.35m to be subjected to the seatbelts rules even in a friend’s or relative’s car?

– – – – –

Enough on the ramblings… a little reflection on my SAHM days for the past few months.

My son KD, now will probably not remember my power suits dressings on every week days when I dropped him off at the infantcare and subsequently in the childcare centres.

To him, I am not a sales person entertaining him, I am not a staff to his bidding. He sees me as his very important mom, friend, imitates after me and depended a lot on me.. Breastfeeding him for 18 months also made him very close to me. To him, i am beautiful with or without make up, fat or thin, tall or short, dark or fair.. rich or poor…

I wrote a blog on What My Child Needs.. what i did not write about was what were the negative reactions i got when i told people including strangers or acquaintances I am a SAHM now.. What turns me off most was the reaction of some family members like, as if i had turned into a fat worm that lazed around all day and leeched my hubby dry.. Please! i was the one supporting my hubby mentally, emotionally and physically, when he took a one year break to venture into the property market! What’s a family about if spouses do not support each other? In fact it was my hubby whom encouraged me to quit my job too!

I was also start to be told to run errands which i am like huh?! I didn’t become a Still-Staying-with-My-In-laws’-Home-Mother to become another domestic helper. Other than caring for the basic needs for my son, i do countless learning activities and bring him out for meaningful excursions with him daily which family members criticise too! End of the day, i told myself.. I am doing it for my hubby and my children. I set my own priorities and my own happiness. It’s obvious, my son and hubby had become happier and less stressed too.

I strongly believe that when the mom is present and very involved during the children’s growing years, the child will grow up to be a fine teenager and decent smart adult.

Till now, though it’s not an easy and is a very tiring role.. i still want to remain a SAHM.

stay_at_home_moms_sahm_mousepad-p144208425986673561trak_400

p/s: All images in this blog post are sourced from the world wide web to emphasis the points across more vividly. If you are the owner of the images, please kindly inform me if it infringed your copyrights and i will remove them immediately.

Our Hong Kong Vacation from 26 to 30 Jan 2013

It’s a very belated post as we have been back from Hong Kong for almost a month now, busy with CNY Preparations and CNY visitings during this two weeks. I have done a quick summary on our huge family vacation below. Be warn that it’s gonna be a pictures heavy post! 🙂

It’s all about eating and shopping!

Travel period: 26 Jan to 30 Jan 2013 (5 days 4 nights)

People present: Me, Hubby, KD, my Father, my Mother, my Father-in-law and my Mother-in-law! I was 27 weeks plus pregnant when I departed Singapore and 28 weeks plus when I came back. We have a super active 3+ year old boy (KD) and our parents are in late 50’s to early 60’s! So basically the only fittest person in this group is my Hubby! Haha!

Travel by: Tiger Airways, on NTUC Union Promotion at only SGD205 nett per pax, all in (with big & heavy luggage option for everyone!). *grins*

Accomodation: Cityview Hotel at Yau Ma Tei, 1 minute away from the Yau Ma Tei MTR and less than 5 minutes walk to Ladies Market
image

Continue reading

I no want salary, I want honey jar!

A conversation with Kyle (KD) at 40 months old, that’s worth jotting down for reminiscent when i am old.

I made a cup of milo for Kyle and he finished it very quickly.

Kyle:  Mommy,  later i buy you a cup of milo ah…

Me: You got money to buy? You know you have to work like Daddy so that you will earn a salary?

Kyle: I DON’T WANT A SALARY!!!

Me: Oh? You don’t want to earn a salary then you want to be a boss? If you are a boss, you will have many businesses!

Kyle: I DON’T WANT TO HAVE BUSINESS!!!

Me: (giving up… ) Then what do you want?

Kyle: I…..  want…..  a….. Honey Jar!!  Give me! Give me my honey jar!!

image

-_-||   -_-///   >_<¦¦¦